causes of jihads in cameroon

causes of jihads in cameroon

  1. Political Causes
  2. Political power in Northern Cameroon was in the hands of the pagans. As a result pure muslims were forced to undertake activities which pure muslims were not suppose to do. Infact the entire Northern Cameroon community was a source of tension between the muslim communities and the pagan overlords because they were involved in in the payment of tributes, heavy taxes or fighting for the pagan rulers against foreign attacks. This explains why jihads were highly welcomed in Northern Cameroon.
  3. The pagan rulers in Northern Cameroon needed the services of the muslims but at the same time these rulers feared them because the clergymen (mallams) enjoyed the reputation as makers of powerful charms which could determine the result of a war and protect their warriors from evil. Because of these prestigeous positions which muslim clercs occupied, they enjoyed tremendous prestige which made themnot only arrogant and over bearing
  4. Political power in Northern Cameroon was in the hands of the pagans. As a result pure muslims were forced to undertake activities which pure muslims were not suppose to do. Infact the entire Northern Cameroon community was a source of tension between the muslim communities and the pagan overlords because they were involved in in the payment of tributes, heavy taxes or fighting for the pagan rulers against foreign attacks. This explains why jihads were highly welcomed in Northern Cameroon.
  5. The pagan rulers in Northern Cameroon needed the services of the muslims but at the same time these rulers feared them because the clergymen (mallams) enjoyed the reputation as makers of powerful charms which could determine the result of a war and protect their warriors from evil. Because of these prestigeous positions which muslim clercs occupied, they enjoyed tremendous prestige which made themnot only arrogant and over bearing but also resentful of the authority the rulers to whom they were subjects. Conciousness of superiority, frustration on the one hand and distrust and fear on the other, these muslims were determined to to reverse this situation.
  6. The Fulbes were promised political positions like ardos, lamidos, and Emirs by Modibo Adama if they took part in the jihads. This quest for political leadership was a strong stimulus to many flag bearers. Many flag bearers became very devoted not only because they wanted to spread islam but for the desire of gaining political leadership.
  7. The Kirdi aristocrats were accused of living a luxury, sinfulness, corruption and oppressive rule. The courts were corrupted and the appointements were discriminatory. The jihads were therefor a liberatory movement for the Fulani and the oppressed.
  8. Religious Reasons
  9. The initial objective of jihad was to purify Islam in Northern Cameroon. The muslim community was divided into the fanatical muslims who insisted that believers follow the rules of their religion regidly and converting those who still live in sin outside the Islamic religion and on the other hand there were the nominal muslims who combined Islamic and pagan practices in their behaviour and culture.To the fanatical muslims group these nominal muslims were regarded an unbelievers, enemies of those who stood in the good life of “Abode” Islam. Such people has to be converted if need by the force of jihads.
  10. The existance of Islam in Northern Cameroon before the start of jihads in the Western Sudan was an important reason for the jihads in Northern Cameroon. From the early times, trading with North Africa permitted a continous source of refreshement for Islam in Northern Cameroon. At the same time the spread of the religion in the region was greatly facilitated by the activities of the nomadic sudanese peopleas some sections of the nomadic fulani and haussa traders. It was for this rerason that Modibo Adama traveled to Sokoto to collect the flag from Uthman Dan Fodio to carry out jihads in Northern Cameroon.
  11. Economic Reasons 
  12. Economic grievances helped to worsen the situation. Unfortunately it turned out to be the case that most muslims in North Cameroon came from the underprivileged and explioted class of the community. These economic grievances helped to explain why some fulanis who were muslims joined the jihads.
  13. The Fulani settlers wanted to take over pagan lands for grazing and farming as well as put an end to all forms of economic exploitation and subordination. This included the paying of tributes, rents, market and cattle taxes etc.

 

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