course of jihads in northern cameroon
After the fall of Gobir in 1808, Dan Fodio called a meeting in Sokoto to discussfurther conquest in the name of Islam. Muslim dignitaries in north Cameroon decided tosend Modibo Adama the courageous and dynamic son of Ardo Hassana to Sokoto. Whileat Sokoto, Adama received flags and blessings from Dan Fodio to carry out the jihads inCameroon. Adama was commander of the jihadists in Fumbina and Dan Fodio thenconferred the title of Lamido of Fumbina on Adama. His mission was precise to launcnthe jihads and spread orthodox Islam from Lake Chad to the Bight of Biaira on the coast of Cameroon. When Adama returned to Fumbina, he established his heaquarters at Yola and recruited Fulbe warriors and Hausa volunteers and mercenaries for the exercıse. In 1809, Adama declared himself over all leaders but not everybody accepted his leadership.Those who accepted him as the religious, political and judiciary leader received the white flag from him as a sign of their allegiance to his mission assuring the spread of Islam in Cameroon through the jihads.
Adama’s solciers arrived with swords, bows and poisoned arrows and superiorhorses, attacked Bata vilages of Pema, Turuwa, and Tepa irst with the support of Hausa mercenaries who raided these villages for slaves. Modibo Ad: na recorded his frst victories in these villages. As a result of this success the local F’ulbes supported him.Fulbe leaders in Guringa, Garoua, Rai Zmmo, Malaba, Faro ete took up their flags and started the jihads in their districts. Maroua was captured between 1809 and 1813. The Diamare valley and Guidder were also captured. Garoua and the Benue valey were captured between 1815 and 1820. After these initial suecesses, Adama decied to personally lead the Mandara campaign. Adama invaded the Mandara and captured the capital Douolo. The Mai evacuated his subject to Mora where he organized a counter-attack. Fortunately for Mai Bukar, Adama failed to choose a Musim leader for the Mandara. The Mai organized a counter attack and recaptured Douolo. However some tributary chiefdoms remained under the control of the Fulbe warriors. These were Moda, Madagali, Mitchiga, Maroua.Bogo and Mindiff.
From this point Adama turned his attention Southward. The Southern campaigns brought the area from Poli to Na tchi through central Cameroon under the Muslim umbrella with the defeat of Koncha and Banyo. The death of Adama in 1847 invariably ended the jihads because his successors failed to continue with the task of extending Islam to the Bigth of Biafra. However before Adama’s death, the jihads had extended further South e.g The Bamum, Nso and Wimbum land.