Glaciation is the process or the state of being covered by glacier and the action of these glaciers on the landscape.



  • Valley (alpine) glacier: these are long and narrow glaciers which are formed on mountainous and flow down slopes through Mt river valleys. They only cover small areas.
  • Continental glacier: they occur over large scales found in Polar Regions

Glaciers erode in three main ways.

  1. Plucking: it is the process by which slowly moving glacier pulls away rock fragments from the sides’ flours of the rock in which they were frozen.
  2. Sapping: it is the breakup of rocks by alternate freezing and thawing of water in cracks.
  3. Abrasion: it is the process by which rock fragments in the moving ice scrub and scratches the floor and the valley sides as it moves down the slope.

Erosional features:

  • Cirque
  • Arête
  • Pyramidal peak
  • Hanging valleys
  • Horning valleys
  • U-shaped valley.


Depositional features

  • Moraines
  • Boulder clay plain
  • Kames
  • Eskers
  • Erratic

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